treated as such. Retrieved The 1983 Code of Canon Law still teaches that the Church has a coercive authority over the baptized, with the authority to direct and to punish, by temporal as well as spiritual penalties, for culpable apostasy or heresy. 379 John Paul II Main article: Pope John Paul II In 1978, Pope John Paul II, formerly Archbishop of Kraków in the Polish People's Republic, became the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the bishop of Rome. "Vocations Online Internet Directory of Women's Religious Communities". 215 The rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches include the Byzantine Rite, in its Antiochian, Greek and Slavonic varieties; the Alexandrian Rite ; the Syriac Rite ; the Armenian Rite ; the Maronite Rite and the Chaldean Rite. 196 197 An attempt at remarriage following divorce without a declaration of nullity places "the remarried spouse. " Compendium of the CCC, 296". The Cambridge history of Latin America. The church has also addressed stewardship of the natural environment, and its relationship to other social and theological teachings. 289 290 In 451 the Council of Chalcedon, in a canon of disputed validity, 291 elevated the see of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome". Archived t the Wayback Machine May, John. McBrien, Richard and Harold Attridge, eds. 394 395 While welcomed by some, it was criticised by some for perceived free sexx sexy games ambiguity, provoking controversies among individual representatives of differing perspectives. In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop.